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Asthma Patients Find Relief With Chiropractic Care

An estimated 300 million people worldwide suffer from asthma. With 180,000 deaths attributed to the disease, asthma treatment has a significant financial burden. In the United States alone, asthma medication is estimated to cost between $1 billion and $6 billion per year. While often treated with medication, there are other natural treatments available, such as chiropractic care.

In recent years, manipulative therapy has been used in addition to medication for managing respiratory diseases in adults and children. While many chiropractors report success with such treatments, few studies have examined the overall effectiveness of using manual therapies for respiratory disease treatment.

A recent literature review sought to examine the efficacy of chiropractic care for patients with asthma. The study involved randomized controlled trials, case reports, case series, cohort studies, survey studies, commentaries, and systematic reviews. The researchers concluded that chiropractic care may offer an alternative care approach for patients with asthma. However, the authors concluded further randomized controlled clinical trials should be conducted for future investigation of this approach.

Another new literature review focused on the use of manual therapy to treat childhood respiratory disease. That study involved eight clinical trials on the effects of manual therapy on children and teens with respiratory diseases. Five of the studies involved children with asthma, while the others focused on the treatment of children with other respiratory conditions, including recurrent respiratory infections, cystic fibrosis, and bronchiolitis.

Six of the eight studies identified positive results of manual therapy, including reduced anxiety, better lung function, and improved levels of salivary cortisol. The use of manual techniques such as chiropractic, osteopathic medicine, and massage appear to be beneficial for children with respiratory disease.While more research is needed to confirm the results of these initial studies, the findings offer promise for families searching for natural relief of asthma.

A recent case study highlights the impact that chiropractic can have for children with asthma. The case study involved a ten-year old boy who found relief from headache and respiratory symptoms under the care of chiropractor.

 

References

Alcantara J, et al. The chiropractic care of patients with asthma: a systematic review of the literature to inform clinical practice. Clinical Chiropractic 2012; 15: 23-30.

Pepinoa VC, et al. Manual therapy for childhood respiratory disease: A systematic review. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2013; 36(1): 57-65.

 

Chiropractic Best Conservative Treatment for Back Pain

When treating persistent back pain, it can be difficult to accurately predict how well a patient will recover from symptoms resulting from non-specific pain. Will the patient be plagued with a lifetime of back pain or can the symptoms be resolved in a matter of months? Although several factors influence the prognosis of back pain, studies suggest that prognosis may differ depending on which treatments patients receive. The identification of which patients are more likely to respond to specific treatments would have valuable clinical implications, yet little research has been done in this area.

A team of researchers recently sought to identify predictors of response to three conservative treatments for low back pain: spinal manipulation (SM), individual physiotherapy (IP), or back school (BS). The research involved 210 patients with chronic, non-specific low back pain. Each was randomly assigned to one of the treatment groups.

Significant improvement was found following all three intervention types. However spinal manipulation provided more functional recovery and pain relief than either of the other interventions studied.  Overall 34% of the patients did not respond to treatment but spinal manipulation showed the lowest rate of non-responders.

The researchers then sought to identify specific patterns of response to treatment in order to identify predictors of outcome. They found that age, quality of life, work status, pain duration, patients' beliefs, and other variables studied did not predict response to treatment. Patients were more likely to benefit from spinal manipulation than from back school or physiotherapy, regardless of their baseline disability score and other clinical characteristics.

A lower initial disability score predicted poor outcome for back school and for individual physiotherapy, but not for patients treated with spinal manipulation. The researchers concluded that patients with chronic lower back pain and related disability should first consider spinal manipulation before other conservative treatments.

Other research has shown that combining chiropractic adjustments with exercise therapies can enhance back-pain treatment.

Reference

Cecchi F, et al. Predictors of functional outcome in patients with chronic low back pain undergoing back school, individual physiotherapy or spinal manipulation. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2012; 48: 371-8.

 

 

 

Chiropractic is Great for Kids

Many parents of children with chronic-health conditions struggle to help their child manage ongoing pain and symptoms. They also worry about the potential effects certain medical treatments and drugs can have on their child's health. That could be why more parents are now seeking natural treatment options like chiropractic.

In a recent study, chiropractic was one of the most commonly-used alternative therapies for children with chronic-health problems.

The study included more than 900 parents of children being treated at cardiology, gastroenterology, neurology, oncology, and respiratory clinics in Canada. Parents were asked about their child's use of alternative therapies and products.

Nearly half of parents said their child used an alternative therapy in addition to receiving conventional treatments. Almost 10% of parents said they'd pursue complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) prior to conventional treatments, and 5% said they used alternative medicine in place of traditional care.

Of the two hospitals included in the survey, at one hospital, 71% of children had received CAM therapies, while 42% had used CAM therapies at the other. The most common CAM therapies were massage, chiropractic, relaxation, and aromatherapy.

Several parents also said their child took multivitamins and minerals and had used herbal supplements and homeopathic remedies in the past. However, parents did not always communicate with primary-care physicians about their child's use of herbal supplements and minerals, which had some observers worried.

Herbal and dietary supplements can change how the body reacts to certain drugs, warned Dr. Josephine Briggs, director of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, who commented on the issue in recent article from The Huffington Post. She encouraged patients to talk with physicians about their herbal and dietary supplement use, and reminded physicians to take the time to ask.

The study suggests that the use of CAM therapies like chiropractic among children is on the rise. Studies show that chiropractic care is a safe, effective treatment for children with musculoskeletal complaints, headache, and more.

Adams D, et al. Complementary and alternative medicine use by pediatric specialty outpatients. Pediatrics 2013; doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-1220.

 

 

Chiropractic Patients Have 90% Reduction in Migraine Frequency

Many patients rely on pain medications to manage migraines but did you know those medications may actually be causing you more headaches? A recent study found that medication overuse causes daily headaches in 1 in 50 people.  Fortunately, there are natural treatment options that don't put you at risk for worsening head pain.

Cases studies have suggested that chiropractic is beneficial for migraine treatment in pregnant women and children but a 2000 study was one of the the first randomized, controlled trials assessing the efficacy of chiropractic for migraine.

The study involved 127 participants between the ages of 10 and 70. All had been diagnosed with migraines, and had a minimum of at least one migraine per month. Half of the patients received chiropractic treatments, while the other half served as a control group. Treatment consisted of two months of chiropractic spinal manipulations, with a maximum of 16 treatments. Over the course of the study, participants completed headache diaries noting the frequency, intensity, duration, disability, associated symptoms, and medication use for each migraine.

The treatment group showed statistically significant improvements in average responses for migraine frequency, duration, disability, and medication use when compared to the control group. Twenty-two percent of participants reported more than a 90% reduction of migraines after the 2 months of treatment. The results of this study support previous information that some people report significant improvement in their migraines after chiropractic spinal manipulation.

Given that a high percentage of people with migraines report stress as a major migraine factor, it appears likely that chiropractic care affects physical conditions related to stress, thereby reducing the effects of the migraine.

A more recent study published in 2012 demonstrated that chiropractic care reduced pain severity in migraine patients by an average of 68%. In other words, chiropractic patients had their pain levels drop from an average of 5 to 0.5 on scale of 1 to 10.

References

Jahangiri JN, Vatankhah N, and Baradaran HR. Reduction of Current Migraine Headache Pain Following Neck Massage and Spinal Manipulation. Journal of Therapeutic Massage and Bodywork. 2012; 5(1): 5–13.

Tuchin P, Pollard H, Bonello R. A randomized controlled trial of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy for migraine. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2000; 23 (2)
91-95.

 

Chiropractic Effective for Hip Osteoarthritis

Some physical therapists and other health-care providers are firm believers in the efficacy of patient education as a means to reduce symptoms for various musculoskeletal diseases. Ongoing research has been conducted to investigate the actual effects that patient education has on symptoms.

In one such study, Danish researchers compared the effectiveness of patient education with chiropractic and patient education without chiropractic. The participants included patients with hip osteoarthritis. One group of patients were educated by a specially trained physical therapist; another group received the same education sessions in addition to manual therapy delivered by a chiropractor, including trigger point release therapy, muscular stretching, and joint manipulation. These two groups were also compared to a group receiving minimal control intervention, who performed simple home-based stretching exercises only.

Participants were treated for six weeks and rated their pain intensity following their specified interventions. Researchers also assessed participants for hip disability, pain outcomes, perceptions about their interventions, and whether or not hip replacement surgery was needed within a year.

The patient education group did not experience outcomes any better than the control group. But the patients who were educated in addition to being treated with chiropractic manual therapy had significant improvements compared to the other two groups. At six weeks, more than 76% of the chiropractic patients reported improvement compared to just 22% of the patient education group and 12% of the home-based stretching group. The chiropractic group was also significantly less likely to have hip replacement surgery within 12 months of the study. Only four in the chiropractic group needed an operation, in contrast with 12 patients in the patient education group and seven in the control group who needed surgery within the year.

Other research about hip osteoarthritis showed that chiropractic manual therapy alone provides effective treatment, and a follow-up study investigated the reason that chiropractic is so effective at easing hip pain.

Reference

Poulsen E, Hartvigsen J, et al. Patient education with or without manual therapy compared to a control group in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip- A proof of principle three-arm parallel group randomized clinical trial. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 2013; 21:145.

 

 

Case Study Highlights Chiropractic for ADHD

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood condition with symptoms such as impulsivity, hyperactivity, inattentiveness, and distractibility. Treatment options are varied, including medication and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) options. Chiropractic care has been suggested as one potential treatment for ADHD.

There is some preliminary evidence to suggest that chiropractic care could have some positive effect on learning disabilities and ADHD. A recent case study adds this body of evidence by detailing the chiropractic care of a 5-year-old boy diagnosed with ADHD. His parents hoped that chiropractic care could help address signs of ADHD such as acting out, inability to follow instructions, and poor performance at school.

An initial examination revealed trigger points and hypertonicity in the paraspinal muscles, along with  cervical and thoracolumbar facet joint irritation. Treatment included stretching, soft tissue therapy, and spinal manipulation conducted three times per week initially, declining to twice per week and continuing for one year.

Following one year of treatment, subjective improvements were noted in the patient's ability to follow instructions, episodes of acting out, and general performance at school and home. This suggests that chiropractic care could have a potential role in the management of patients with ADHD.  However, the researchers pointed out that these improvements may have resulted from the psychological benefit of having an increased support system during treatment. Additionally, since physical touch has been shown to alter mood and behavior, the hands-on approach of the treatment could have also played a role in its success.

While this case study provides us with an example of the potential impact of chiropractic on kids with ADHD,  the overall evidence on chiropractic for ADHD is sparse. No large-scale trials evaluating chiropractic treatments for ADHD have been conducted, and more research must be done to confirm any effects.

Reference

Muir JM. Chiropractic management of a patient with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal Chiropractic Medicine 2012l 11(3): 221–224.

 

Chiropractic Is Whole Body Wellness

Most people think of chiropractic as effective way to treat back pain. While this is true, dozens of medical studies show that chiropractic can alleviate a number of other health conditions, while promoting general health and wellness.

Studies show that chiropractic care can:

  • Ease the pain of aging in adults with scoliosis, spinal degeneration, and osteoarthritis in the knee, hip, and hands
  • Heal damaged nerves causing the radiating pain associated with disc herniation, sciatica, carpal tunnel syndrome, and more
  • Decrease pregnancy-related pelvic and back pain
  • Reduce patient reliance on pain medication to manage migraines and cervicogenic headaches
  • Improve recovery from auto injuries like whiplash, neck pain, TMJ disorders, and tinnitus
  • Treat and prevent sports injuries like muscle strains and injuries to the shoulders, back, and lower limbs
  • Soothe symptoms of fibromyalgia

But chiropractic can do more than provide pain relief, it can improve your overall health and well being. Research suggests that chiropractic care can also:

  • Boost immunity
  • Reduce stress hormones
  • Lower blood pressure

While dozens of scientific studies have examined the many benefits of chiropractic care, the best way to discover the benefits is to try it out yourself. So take the plunge and learn how chiropractic can boost your whole body wellness today.

References:

Cervicogenic Headache

Haas M, Spegman A, Peterson D, Aickin M, Vavrek D. Dose response and efficacy of spinal manipulation for chronic cervicogenic headache: a pilot randomized controlled trial. The Spine Journal 2010; 10: 117-128.

Migraine

Tuchin P, Pollard H, Bonello R. A randomized controlled trial of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy for migraine. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2000; 23 (2): 91-95.

Headache

Jull G, Trott P, Potter H, et al. A randomized controlled trail of exercise and manipulative therapy for cervicogenic headache. Spine 2002; 27(17):1835-1843.

Dizziness Lystad RP, Bell G, et al. Manual therapy with and without vestibular rehabilitation for cervicogenic dizziness: a systematic review. Chiropractic and Manual Therapies 2011;19(1):21

TMJ disorders

Alcantara J, Plaugher G, Klemp DD, Salem C. Chiropractic care of a patient with temporomandibular disorder and atlas subluxation. Journal of Maniuplative and Physiological Therapeutics 2002; 25(1):63-70.

Tinnitus/TMJ

DeVocht JW, Schaeffer W, Lawrence DJ. Chiropractic treatment of temporomandibular disorders using the activator adjusting instrument and protocol. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 2005; 11(6):70-3.

Neck pain

Bronfort G, Evans R, Anderson A, Svendsen K, Bracha Y, and Grimm R. Spinal Manipulation, medication, or home exercise with advice for acute and subacute neck pain: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2012; 156 (1): 1-10.

Whiplash

Woodward MN, Cook JCH, Gargan MF, Bannister GC. Chiropractic treatment of chronic ‘whiplash’ injuries. Injury: International Journal of the Care of the Injured 1996;27(9):643-645.

Shoulder Pain

Boyles RE, Ritland BM, Miracle BM, Barclay DM, Faul MS, Moore JH, et al. The short-term effects of thoracic spine thrust manipulation on patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. Manual Therapy 2009;14:375–80

Back Pain

Balthazard P, et al. Manual therapy followed by specific active exercises versus a placebo followed by specific active exercises on the improvement of functional disability in patients with chronic non specific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2012; 13: 162. doi:10.1186/1471-2474-13-162.

Cifuentes M, Willetts J, Wasiak R. Health maintenance care in work-related low back pain and its association with disability recurrence. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2011; 53(4): 396-404.

von Heymann W, Schloemer P, et al. Spinal HVLA-manipulation in acute nonspecific LBP: A double blinded randomized controlled trial in comparison with diclofenac and placebo. Spine 2012; doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e318275d09c.

Immunity

Teodorczyk-Injeyan JA, McGregor M, Ruegg R, Injeyan HS. Interleukin 2-regulated in vitro antibody production following a single spinal manipulative treatment in normal subjects. Chiropractic & Osteopathy 2010; 18:26.

Blood Pressure

Bakris G, Dickholtz M, Meyer PM, Kravitz G, et al. Atlas vertebra realignment and achievement of arterial pressure goal in hypertensive patients: a pilot study. Journal of Human Hypertension 2007;21:347-352.

Stress

Ogura, Takeshi and Manabu Tashiro, Mehedi,Shoichi Watanuki, Katsuhiko Shibuya, Keiichiro Yamaguchi, Masatoshi Itoh, Hiroshi Fukuda, Kazuhiko Yanai. Cerebral metabolic changes in men after chiropractic spinal manipulation for neck pain. Alternative Therapies. 2011; 17 (6): 12-17.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome/Wrist Pain

De-la-llave-Rincon, A. Response of pain intensity to soft tissue mobilization and neurodynamic technique: a series of 18 patients with chronic carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2012; doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2012.06.002.

Knee Osteoarthritis

Pollard H, Ward G, Hoskins W, and Hardy K. The effect of a manual therapy knee protocol on osteoarthritic knee pain: a randomised controlled trial. The Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association 2008; 52(4):229-42.

Hip Osteoarthritis

Brantingham JW, Globe GA, Cassa TK, et al. A single-group pretest posttest design using full kinetic chain manipulative therapy with rehabilitation in the treatment of 18 patients with hip osteoarthritis. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapy 2012; 33(6): 445-57

Hand/Thumb Osteoarthritis

Villafañe JH, Silva GB, and Chiarotto A. Effects of passive upper extremity joint mobilization on pain sensitivity and function in participants with secondary carpometacarpal osteoarthritis: a case series. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2012; 35(9): 735-42.

Scoliosis

Morningstar, Mark W. “Outcomes for adult scoliosis patients receiving chiropractic rehabilitation: a 24-month retrospective analysis.” Journal of Chiropractic Medicine 2011; 10: 179-184.

Sciatica

McMorland G, Suter E, Casha S, du Plessis SJ, Hurlbert RJ. Manipulation or microdiskectomy for sciatica? A prospective randomized clinical study. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2010; 33(8): 576-584.

Pelvic Pain

Howell ER. Pregnancy-related symphysis pubis dysfunction management and postpartum rehabilitation:two case reports. Journal of Canadian Chiropractic Association 2012; 56 (2):102-111.

Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

Kamali, Fahimeh and Esmaeil Shokri. The effect of two manipulative therapy techniques and their outcome in patients with sacroiliac joint syndrome. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 2012; 16: 29-35.

Nerve Impingement

Christensen KD, Buswell K. Chiropractic outcomes managing radiculopathy in a hospital setting: a retrospective review of 162 patients. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine 2008; 7 (3): 115-25.

Radicular Pain

Rodine RJ, Vernon H. Cervical radiculopathy: a systematic review on treatment by spinal manipulation and measurement with the Neck Disability Index. Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association 2012;56(1):18-28.

Fibromyalgia

Panton LB, Figueroa A, Kingsley JD, et al. Effects of resistance training and chiropractic treatment in women with fibromyalgia. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2009;15(3):321-328.

 

Chiropractic Effective for Dizziness, Study Confirms

An estimated 11-28% of adults suffer from chronic dizziness —a never-ending feeling of spinning, unsteadiness, and disorientation. These symptoms are common in patients with headache, neck pain, and whiplash-associated disorders.

Fortunately, a growing body of research suggests that manual therapies like chiropractic can reduce cervicogenic dizziness.

This specific type of dizziness is believed to originate in the cervical spine or neck. The neck plays an important role in the body's postural control: your neck is full of muscle spindles that act as sensory receptors working with a variety of reflexes to stabilize the head, eyes, and posture. Injury or disorders in the neck may disrupt the body's sensory system, resulting in cervical vertigo. Treating disorders in the neck can help restore the body's sensory capabilities to reduce symptoms of dizziness.

A recent literature review analyzes the available research on the efficacy of spinal adjustments, soft-tissue mobilization, and other manual therapies for treating dizziness.1

In a 2008 study, researchers compared a specific type of spinal mobilization to a placebo.2Although placebo patients did improve, the patients receiving spinal mobilization experienced additional improvements in decreased dizziness frequency. They also had significantly reduced dizziness severity, disability, and neck pain at both the 6 and 12-week follow-ups.

The literature review also showed that other manual therapies, notably spinal adjustments and soft-tissue mobilization, produced similar improvements in several studies.

In addition to minimizing dizziness symptoms, two studies showed that spinal adjustments were found to improve blood flow in the arteries of the neck, which is believed to produce therapeutic effects.3-4 Another two studies found that spinal adjustments led to measurable improvements in balance.5-6

Some case studies suggested that combining manual therapies with vestibular rehabilitation could prove to be more superior than manual therapy alone. Vestibular rehabilitation can include a variety of mental and physical exercises, occupational therapy, restoring balance sense, and eye training. While cases studies point to promising results with combined treatment, there are still no experimental or observational studies on the combined effects of manual therapies and rehabilitation. The authors recommended that future research examine the potential benefits of combined treatment, and determine the dose requirements of manual therapies for dizziness.

This literature review confirms that chiropractic and other manual therapies can reduce cervicogenic dizziness for many patients. Chiropractors can also provide natural treatment for related symptoms of  cervicogenic headache and migraine.

 

Primary Reference:

1. Lystad RP, Bell G, et al. Manual therapy with and without vestibular rehabilitation for cervicogenic dizziness: a systematic review. Chiropractic and Manual Therapies 2011;19(1):21. doi: 10.1186/2045-709X-19-21.

Secondary References:

2. Reid SA, Rivett DA, Katekar MG, Callister R. Sustained natural apophyseal glides (SNAGs) are an effective treatment for cervicogenic dizziness. Manual Therapy 2008;13(4):357–366. doi: 10.1016/j.math.2007.03.006.

3. Kang F, Wang Q-C, Ye Y-G. A randomized controlled trial of rotatory reduction manipulation and acupoint massage in the treatment of younger cervical vertigo. Chinese Journal of Orthopedics & Trauma 2008;21(4):270–272.

4. Du H, Wei H, Huang M-Z, Jiang Z, Ye S-L, Song H-Q, Yu J-W, Ning X-T. Randomized controlled trial on manipulation for the treatment of cervical vertigo of high flow velocity type. Chinese Journal of Orthopedics & Trauma 2010;23(3):212–215.

5. Reid SA, Rivett DA, Katekar MG, Callister R. Sustained natural apophyseal glides (SNAGs) are an effective treatment for cervicogenic dizziness. Manual Therapy 2008;13(4):357–366. doi: 10.1016/j.math.2007.03.006.

6. Karlberg M, Magnusson M, Malmström E-M, Melander A, Moritz U. Postural and symptomatic improvement after physiotherapy in patients with dizziness of suspected cervical origin. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1996;77(9):874–882. doi: 10.1016/S0003-9993(96)90273-7.

 

How Chiropractic Can Help During Pregnancy

Pregnancy can be a wonderful time in a woman's life but it can also be the source of significant pain. Conditions like back pain and migraine can make it difficult to sleep and can affect your quality of life. And since you want to protect your baby, you don’t want to use drugs if you can avoid them.

Chiropractic is a safe, natural way to manage and treat pain during pregnancy. Research shows that chiropractic adjustments can substantially reduce pain in the low back, pelvis, and hips; ease sciatica; relieve stress; and reduce the frequency of headaches.

During pregnancy, weight gain and changes in posture place stress on your joints and muscles. Hormonal fluctuations can trigger migraine and loosen the ligaments and muscles connecting to your pelvis. All of this can result in pain.

Chiropractic uses gentle adjustments to relieve pressure on any pinched nerves and ease the stress placed on ligaments and joints. Your chiropractor can also advise you in using stretches, improved posture, nutrition, and safe lifting methods to reduce pain.

But chiropractic does more than treat pain, it enables you to maintain optimal wellness in this crucial time. A doctor of chiropractic can help you develop a nutrition and exercise program to improve the health of you and your baby. Plus, studies show that chiropractic adjustments reduce blood pressure, heart rate, and stress hormones, boost immunity, and more.

To find out more about the benefits of natural prenatal care, contact a chiropractor today.

References and Related Studies

Alcantara, Joel and Martine Cossette. "Intractable migraine headaches during pregnancy under chiropractic care." Complementary Therapies in Clinical   Practice. 2009; 15: 192-7.

Howell ER. Pregnancy-related symphysis pubis dysfunction management and postpartum rehabilitation:two case reports. Journal of Canadian Chiropractic Association 2012; 56 (2):102-111.

Lisi AJ. Chiropractic spinal manipulation for low back pain of pregnancy: a retrospective case series. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health 2006;51:e7- e10.

Ogura, Takeshi and Manabu Tashiro, Mehedi,Shoichi Watanuki, Katsuhiko Shibuya, Keiichiro Yamaguchi, Masatoshi Itoh, Hiroshi Fukuda, Kazuhiko Yanai. Cerebral Metabolic Changes in Men After Chiropractic Spinal Manipulation for Neck Pain. Alternative Therapies. 2011, November/December; 17 (6): 12-17.

Sadr S, Pourkiani-Allah-Abad N, Stuber KJ. The treatment experience of patients with   low back pain during pregnancy and their chiropractors: a qualitative study. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2012, 20:32. doi:10.1186/2045-709X-20-32.

Teodorczyk-Injeyan JA, McGregor M, Ruegg R, Injeyan HS. Interleukin 2-regulated in    vitro antibody production following a single spinal manipulative treatment in normal subjects. Chiropractic & Osteopathy 2010; 18:26.